Features of Java Programming Language

Java is one of the most popular and commonly used programming languages. It is widely recognized for its performance, platform independence, and security.

Java is used as a server-side language for back-end development, android development, desktop computing, games, and numerical computing. Various features of Java contribute to its wide use and popularity. In this blog, we will discuss the top features of the Java programming language to understand why programmers, software developers, and data science professionals continue to choose Java.

Table of Contents

Java Features

Below are some of the most important features of Java programming:

1. Inspired by C and C++

Java is inspired by C and C++. The syntax of Java is similar to these languages but the languages are quite different. Java inherits many features from C and C++. Compared to C++, Java code runs a bit slower but it is more portable and offers better security features.


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2. Simple and Familiar

Java programming language is simple to learn, understand, read, and write. Java programs are easy to create and implement compared to other programming languages such as C and C++. If you are familiar with the basic principles of programming or the concept of OOP (object-oriented programming), it would be easy to master Java.

Why is Java simple?

  • Easy to learn
  • Clean code – easy to understand

Why is Java familiar?

  • It is similar to C and C++ and includes many features of these programming languages
  • The complex and ambiguous concepts in C and C++, such as explicit pointers and storage classes are not included in Java
  • Easy to learn for programmers who know C or C++

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3. Object-Oriented

Java is a fully object-oriented language, unlike C++ which is semi object-oriented. It supports every OOP concept such as Abstraction, Encapsulation, Inheritance, Polymorphism. Java programs are developed using classes and objects. Another notable feature is that in Java the main() function is defined under a class.

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4. Platform Independent

Java’s platform independence means that Java programs compiled on one machine or operating system can be executed on any other machine or operating system without modifications. It is also called an Architecture Neutral Language.

Java supports WORA (Write Once, Run Anywhere), which means that programmers can develop applications in one operating system and run on any other without any modification.

Java source code is compiled using Java Compiler. The compiler converts the source code into an intermediate code called the byte code. This code is further converted into machine-dependent form by the JVM (Java Virtual Machine). The JVM can execute byte code on any platform or operating system on which it is present.

5. Compiled and Interpreted

Java offers both compilation and interpretation of programs. It combines the power of compiled languages and the flexibility of interpreted languages.

When a Java program is created, the Java compiler (javac) compiles the java source code into byte code. The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) serves as an interpreter that converts byte code to machine code which is portable and can be executed on any operating system.

6. Multi-threaded

Java supports multithreading programming. A thread is an independent process to execute a set of statements. The term multi-threaded refers to creating multiple threads to handle multiple tasks at the same time.

JVM uses multiple threads to execute different blocks of code of the same program in parallel. The multithreading feature allows programmers to write programs to do multiple tasks simultaneously. It improves CPU and main memory utilization as there is no need to wait for the application to finish one task before starting the other.

Here are some of its advantages:

  • Maximum utilization of resources
  • Saves time
  • Saves cost
  • Threads are independent, so one thread does not affect the other
  • Enhances the performance of complex applications

7. Dynamic

Java is more dynamic compared to C and C++. It can adapt to its evolving environment. It allows programmers to dynamically link new class libraries, objects, and methods. Java programs can have a large amount of run-time information that can be used to resolve accesses to objects.

8. Robust

Java is a robust language that can handle run-time errors as it checks the code during the compile and runtime. If any runtime error is identified by the JVM, it will not be passed directly to the underlying system. Instead, it will immediately terminate the program and stop it from causing any harm to the system. Java has a strong memory management system. It also supports the concepts of garbage collection and exception handling.

9. Secure

Java is a secure language that ensures that programs cannot gain access to memory locations without authorization. It has access modifiers to check memory access. Java also ensures that no viruses enter an applet. Java’s bytecode verifier checks the code blocks for any illegal code that violates the access right. It also does not allow programmers to explicitly create pointers.

10. High Performance

Java offers high performance as it used the JIT (Just In Time) compiler. The compiler only compiles that method which is being called. The JIT enhances the performance of interpreting byte code by caching interpretations.

11. Portable

Due to the concept of Write Once Run Anywhere (WORA) and platform independence, Java is a portable language. By writing once through Java, developers can get the same result on every machine. It is also very portable to various operating systems and architectures. Java run-time system is written in the ANSI C with clean portability boundary which is POSIX-compliant.

12. Automatic Garbage Collection

The most common and critical problems in C/C++ were memory leaks. FYI, memory leaks are a problem wherein a piece of memory that is no longer in use, fails to be freed. This is because garbage collection has to be done manually. However, Java supports automatic Garbage collection. It keeps checking over such unused memory spaces and frees them automatically. 


So, now we know what features make Java a popular and useful programming language among programmers, software developers, and data science professionals. It has a flexible design that enables developers to write code that can run on any machine. The impressive features of this versatile programming language enable programmers to create scalable and high-performance programs. We hope this article helped you understand what are the features of Java.

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